The equation of continuity states that for an incompressible fluid flowing in a tube of varying cross-section, the mass flow rate is the same everywhere in the tube. … Generally, the density stays constant and then it’s simply the flow rate (Av) that is constant.

Also, What are the 2 types of flow?

Type of Fluid Flow. Fluid flow is generally broken down into two different types of flows, laminar flow and turbulent flow.

Hereof, How do you calculate oxygen flow rate?

The minute ventilation (volume) is calculated by multiplying the tidal volume by the respiration rate, measured in litres per minute. Peak Inspiratory Flow Rate (PIFR): The fastest flow rate of air during inspiration, measured in litres per second.

Also to know Does mass flow rate change with pressure? Bernoulli’s equation states mathematically that if a fluid is flowing through a tube and the tube diameter decreases, then the velocity of the fluid increases, the pressure decreases, and the mass flow (and therefore volumetric flow) remains constant so long as the air density is constant.

What are 2 characteristics of laminar flow?

Characteristic Of Laminar Flow

  • Laminar is characterized by smooth streamlines and highly ordered motion. …
  • The steady laminar flow of an incompressible fluid with constant properties in the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe.
21 Related Questions Answers Found

What is flow and types of flow?

Basically, flow types can be subdivided into laminar flow and turbulent flow: Type of flow. Physiological occurrence. Flow rate. Flow.

What are the three types of flow?

The three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange are trade flows, human capital flows and capital flows or investments.

What is the normal oxygen flow rate?

The flow rate o f oxygen is usually adjusted to increase or decrease the amount of oxygen that patients are receiving. Standard oxygen sources can deliver from ½ liter per minute of O2 to 5 liters/minute (L/min). Every liter/minute of oxygen increases the percentage of O2 the patient breathes by 3 – 4 %.

What is the normal inspiratory flow rate?

Most modern ventilators can deliver flow rates between 60 and 120 L/min. Flow rates should be titrated to meet the patient’s inspiratory demands. If the peak flow rate is too low for the patient, dyspnea, patient-ventilator asynchrony, and increased work of breathing may result.

What is the oxygen to entrainment ratio for 60?

Oxygen Delivery Systems

Question Answer
air: oxygen entrainment ratios: .

60 1:1

, .50 1.7:1, .40 3:1, .35 5:1,.30 8:1

What is the difference between volume flow rate and mass flow rate?

Volumetric flow is best when measuring the volumetric flow of the gas and high accuracy isn’t necessary. Compared to volumetric flow, mass flow shows virtually zero fluctuation with pressure and temperature. The cost between the two technologies is significant.

What is the relationship between mass flow rate and volume flow rate?

Volume flow rate is the amount of volume flowing through a given cross-section Mass flow rate is the amount of mass passing through a given cross section.

Does flow rate affect pressure?

Under laminar flow conditions, pressure drop is proportional to volumetric flow rate. At double the flow rate, there is double the pressure drop. Under turbulent flow conditions, pressure drop increases as the square of the volumetric flow rate. … Pressure drop decreases as common mode pressure increases.

What are characteristics of laminar flow?

In fluid dynamics, laminar flow is characterized by fluid particles following smooth paths in layers, with each layer moving smoothly past the adjacent layers with little or no mixing. At low velocities, the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards.

What are the four types of flow?

In physics, fluid flow has all kinds of aspects — steady or unsteady, compressible or incompressible, viscous or nonviscous, and rotational or irrotational, to name a few.

What is an example of laminar flow?

A different example of laminar flow occurs everyday inside of you. Blood flowing throughout your body is flowing laminarly. One last example of laminar flow is syrup, or honey, flowing out the nozzle. Because the liquid is so thick, or viscous, the Reynolds number indicates that the flow is very laminar.

What are the kinds of flow?

Types of Fluid


  • Steady and Unsteady


  • Uniform and non-uniform


  • One, two and three-dimensional


  • Rotational or irrotational


  • Laminar or Turbulent


  • Compressible or Incompressible



Why is laminar flow important?

Laminar airflow is used to separate volumes of air, or prevent airborne contaminants from entering an area. Laminar flow hoods are used to exclude contaminants from sensitive processes in science, electronics and medicine.

What is steady flow?

A steady flow is one in which all conditions at any point in a stream remain constant with respect to time. … But if this rate of change of pressure and velocity are equal on both sides of a constant average value, the flow is steady flow. The exact term use for this is mean steady flow.

What is considered high flow oxygen?

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is an oxygen supply system capable of delivering up to 100% humidified and heated oxygen at a flow rate of up to 60 liters per minute.

What is a good FiO2?

FiO2 is typically maintained below 0.5 even with mechanical ventilation, to avoid oxygen toxicity., but there are applications when up to 100% is routinely used. … This easy rule of thumb gives you a safe estimate when approximating your “effective FiO2” at home based on your liter flow.

What is the highest level of oxygen you can be on?

The highest level of oxygen that a human can safely live in is 23.5%. The optimal range of oxygen in the air for humans runs between 19.5 and 23.5%.

What is the peak inspiratory flow?

The PIFR is the maximal flow generated during a forced inspiratory maneuver. It is regularly measured without resistance during standard pulmonary function testing. When inhaling through a DPI, high internal resistance impacts the PIFR generated and needed for drug dispersion.

What is the normal range for minute ventilation?

Normal minute ventilation is between 5 and 8 L per minute (Lpm). Tidal volumes of 500 to 600 mL at 12–14 breaths per minute yield minute ventilations between 6.0 and 8.4 L, for example.

What is the normal ratio of inspiration to expiration?

Answer. The normal inspiration/expiration (I/E) ratio to start is 1:2. This is reduced to 1:4 or 1:5 in the presence of obstructive airway disease in order to avoid air-trapping (breath stacking) and auto-PEEP or intrinsic PEEP (iPEEP).